Friday, February 23, 2018

Poor land use efficiency in Agriculture

Agriculture is a major employer in the world. Most of the agriculture production is done by the small and marginal farmers. The land is the major constraint for these types of farmers. Every farm unit needs some operational land this operation land remains unused. Farmers need some path of space for movement and monitoring of the farm. This operation land can contribute a lot, but it remains ideal and increase the risk of the farmer. There are many reasons which lead to poor land efficiency We must think about them, we will have to find the solution and we will have to ensure that farmers are benefiting from these solutions. 

Extreme Climatic condition:

Agriculture land can’t be utilized properly due to the extreme climatic condition. Normal cultivation climate is 20 degrees to 35 degrees if climate reach beyond this limit then it becomes problematic to take agriculture production and efficiency of land comes down. Some crop can be survived in the limit of 10 degrees to 40 degrees. But the plant doesn’t have proper growth in this extended climate range. 

Poor irrigation facility:

Sometimes farmers have good agriculture land but the availability of the water is very poor, so farmers can’t cultivate the whole land, a large of chunk of land remain uncultivated. Sometimes farmers have low water, but he takes high irrigation crop and at the end of cropping season he doesn’t have sufficient arrangement for water. After climate availability of water is the major reason behind the poor land use efficiency.

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Soilless cultivation in plastic carate

Mix agriculture: 

Though mix agriculture concept is to increase the land use efficiency. But sometimes it limits the operations on land. Farmers do the mixed agriculture for his personal and family need but the efficiency of land comes down. Sometime agriculture practices intersect each other and create problem for another activity. Farmers can’t give complete attention to both activities. He can’t explore the complete potential of one activity. 

Manual operations 

Farmers have limitation of time in manual operation and he can maintain the consistency in his farm work. His land remains unutilised due to manual operations. He can’t take the complete outcome of his land resources. 

Residential accommodation 

Generally, farmers live in agriculture farm and then use the large chunk of land for residential purpose. Though it is very good that farmer lives on the farm and he start his operations early at the farm but in this accommodation, a lot of lands is used for the non-agriculture purpose. 

We have work in collaboration to increase the efficiency of land so that especially marginal and small farmers can benefit from it. And they can contribute more toward the food production. Agriculture land resource can be used properly and the world can fight hunger and malnutrition.

Saturday, February 10, 2018

Blockchain technology in Agriculture

Blockchain technology in Agriculture will change the scenario of current AgricultureAgriculture is a primary requirement of human rehabilitation. It is major job provider to world populations. Agriculture is facing a lot of problem due to poor data integration.  Somewhere people are doing overproduction and somewhere people are dying due to hunger & malnutrition. Problem is not with production, the problem is with integration and interpretation of information. Agriculture data are collected by the various organization but unfortunately, all these data are not integrated. They are centralized in the different organization. A crop cultivation starts today, and it gives production after 4-5 months. After 4-5 months due to poor storage facilities and poor prices, farmers throw the produce on roads, but no consumer gets that commodity free of cost.  4-5 months is sufficient time for decision making about storage and demand generation. Govt can come with “that particular crop” friendly policy so that after production produce is consumed properly and timely.

Blockchain is simply digitalized decentralized public ledger.  Which is verified by its own users. Blockchain gives a clear detail about the transfer of information from one block to another block.  Blocks are simply the point of transitions. This information is shared with all the network hardware equally. Every block has clear information from where this information is coming and where this information is going. There are clear digital identities of every block. Which can’t be changed by one or two people? If someone will try to change then blockchain will declare false to the entire chain of information and it will not be accepted by the blockchain network. There is no control on information, of one person. If information will be digitally true, then only it will be accepted.  No one can put a false information in a network. No one can delete the accepted true information.

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Blockchain Technology In India
How is it helpful in agriculture?

In agriculture, there are three major stockholders, first producer, the value addition person and last consumer.  If we integrate all the information real time, then it will become very easy for all the major stockholder.   There are three major problems, which leads to price inflation or deflation in agriculture overproduction, lower production, and wastage. All these problems can be solved by the blockchain technology. Blockchain technology is peer to peer there is no one in between who will read the information. A consumer of cumin from Europe can directly contact with a producer of cumin in India.

Generally, a farmer doesn’t know what is a requirement of the consumer. He starts cultivation on the basis of current price and available resources.  If last year prices of tomato were 1.5 USD /kg this year everyone will put tomato and after four months everyone throws the tomato on roads due to poor storage facilities and lower market price.  Blockchain technology will tell the farmers real-time requirement of current sowing. For example, there is the requirement of 100 Units of wheat and all the farmers of the world have sown seeds or done the cultivation which is sufficient for production 100-unit wheat. Once this information will emerge in the network. Will a farmer do further sowing, simply “NO”? Will all seeds companies produce seeds for production of 200-unit wheat? Simply “NO”. If processing unit came to know that this year wheat production in its area is 10 units will it prepare the warehouse for 20 units?? Simply NO.

If consumption of Gram or pulses is 100 Unit in India. The farmer came to know that sowing for production of 90 units has completed. There the is an opportunity to produce 10 unit of the pulse. Will he produce more pulses? Simply “YES”.  In another example, a country has exported 10 unit of pulses. The day order is issued there will be a vacuum in commodity chain of that country. A country can easily manage the vacuum before prices start to inflate after 4-5 months. There is information that Price of Ukraine wheat is USD 1/Kg after importing it will cost 1.2 USD to Bangladesh. Cost of production of wheat is coming only 1.1 USD/Kg in Bangladesh. Will farmer from Ukraine produce wheat to export to Bangladesh? simply “No” if Bangladesh has an opportunity to produce wheat at 1.1 USD/Kg will it consider importing wheat from UKRAINE? Will farmer of Bangladesh not consider producing wheat? simply YES. Here I am giving an example of the country to country. The blockchain is peer to peer direct communication between farmer to consumer. A consumer of Bangladesh can make a contract with the farmer of Ukraine to produce wet for him. IF farmer of Australia is providing cheaper when then he can purchase it from Australian farmer.

Problem of wastage

There is information in the chain that in a particular region there is the production of 100 units of tomato and storage facility is for 20 units. What will a storage company do? It will develop a space for storage of tomato.  There is information in blockchain that 100 units of Potato are laying in “X” warehouse. There will be no new production for 100 units and existing stock will not be thrown on roads. In block, there is information that this year consumption of agrochemical is lower than usual. It means that climatic conditions are good there is no attack of disease and insect and production is expected to be more than normal. The final production will give information to stop production of new crop.

These are only basic problems. It can also solve the other complicated problems related to climate, availability of farm inputs, availability of agriculture finance. A farmer needs finance from a bank, the bank can check that they are giving finance for in-demand crop or for an overproduction crop. Blockchain will make it easy and secure in the transfer of information it will give accuracy. There are no chances in the manipulation of data. As information can’t be put in the back date. IF “X” is a farmer, he has sown on seed for the production of 200 units, he can’t make an agreement to sell the 250 units.  No one can’t hoard the material to create the problem of the artificial supply shortage, simply “NO”. 

Blockchain technology is future of world trade. Word trade will come on a platform. All the information will be distributed. It will make sure that no human will dies due to the shortage of food. A lot of countries are facing the problem of shortage of food. If the information is available in the blockchain, then one country can donate the food when the prices are minimum. There will be no miss use of resources. Resources can be used for another task. Global trade in agriculture commodities will become easy. Buyer and seller can easily check that where is their material. No one will do a false contract of supply of the commodity. If “X” doesn’t have stock of spices he can’t sell it to a buyer. Buyer will go to the real seller. Blockchain technology will eradicate the unnecessary middleman. The problem of payment will also eradicate. Buyer will contact seller and seller will get the payment at defined term very fast once the liability of seller will have gone he will get the payment.

It will benefit to small and medium farmers. As per existing information, 70 % of world agriculture production comes from small and medium farmers only.  Organization are working very fast on use of blockchain technology in agriculture. Agriculture and Hunger are the major thrust area for blockchain technology. Extension of existing blockchain to other industry will make it is easier to assist agriculture and serve humanity.

Thursday, February 8, 2018

एलोवेरा ( ग्वारपाठे ) की खेती का महत्व ।

ग्वारपाठा एक महत्वपूर्ण औषधीय पौधा है । वैसे तो ग्वारपाठे की बहुत सारी प्रजातीय पाई जाती है ।  जिनका अलग-अलग महत्व है । लेकिन सबसे ज्यादा एलोवेरा बार्बेंदिसिस की खेती की जाती है ।  इसका  स्वाद कड़वा नहीं होता । एलोवेरा एक बहु वर्षीय फसल है । जिसका मतलब एक बार लगाने के बाद एलोवेरा की रुपाई या बीजाई हर बार नहीं करनी पड़ती ।  4-5 साल के लिए वही पौध चलती रहती है ।

एक एकड़ में एलोवेरा के 10000 पौधे लगाये जाते है । एलोवेरा की रुपाई रोपण पौध के द्वारा होती है । इसकी बुवाई 2 फीट की दुरी पर लाइन से करते है । ध्यान रहे की पौधे की जड़ों में किसी तरह का पानी का ठहराव नहीं होना चाहिए । एलोवेरा की बुवाई बेबी प्लांट से होती है ।  3-4 साल में एलोवेरा के मुख्य पौधे के आस पास बेबी प्लांट निकल जाते है । इन्हें बेच कर भी किसान अतिरिक्त  आमदनी कर सकता है ।

ग्वारपाठे की पत्तियों की तुडाई 500 ग्राम बजन में व 24 इंच लम्बाई की होने पर कर लेनी चाहिए । पत्तिय तुडाई करने के बाद 12 घन्टे में प्रोसेस हो जानी चाहिए । किसान को चाहिए  किए पत्तियां तोड़ के खेत के स्तर पर ग्वारपाठा का गुद्दा / पल्प या जूस निकल ले । ये पत्तियां बेचने से ज्यादा  अच्छा है । इससे परिवहन में होने वाला नुकसान कम हो जायेगा । किसान पल्प को ज्यादा समय तक स्टोर कर सकता है ।

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 Aloevera plant

ग्वारपाठा के बहुत से उपयोग है । इसे विभिन्न तरीके से काम में लिया जाता है । ग्वारपाठे की सब्जी बनाई जाती है । स्थानीय ज्ञान के अनुसार जोडो के दर्द में ग्वारपाठे की सब्जी बहुत अच्छी होती है । ग्वारपाठा का जूस बनाया जाता है । ग्वारपाठा का जूस बहुत गुणकारी होता है ।  आज कल ग्वारपाठा के जूस को मुख्य घटक बना के बहत सी हेल्थ ड्रिंक भी बाजार में उपलब्ध है । एलोवेरा का जूस पाचन से सम्बधित विकार दूर करता है । एलोवेरा की जैल सोंदर्य प्रसाधन बनाने के काम में आती है । ग्वारपाठा की जैल का पाउडर बनाया जाता है । ये पाउडर भी सोंदर्य प्रसाधन में  काम में आता है ।

ग्वारपाठा के खेती पहले से उपयोगी जमीं में करने से बचे । खेती करने से पहले पत्तियों का बाज़ार भाव जरूर मालूम कर ले । खरीदने वाले का अच्छी तरह पता कर ले । परिवहन का खर्चा व तुडाई का खर्चा अपनी लागत में जरूर जोड़ लेवे । परिवहन के लिए प्लास्टिक का कैरट का प्रयोग करे । जिससे की पत्तियों को बाज़ार तक परिवहन में नुकसान कम से कम हो ।  

Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Why is auto insurance required in rural area / agriculture ?

Farming or agriculture is a very difficult work. A lot of risks are involved in agriculture.  Agriculture is a physical work so there is risk up to death, there is risks of accident, there is the risk of health, there is the risk of damage to tractors, automobiles and implements, weather risk, fire risk, burglary risk.  The farmer transports his material from farm to market yard, market to farm there is road accident risk.

We will discuss all these risks one by one. In this content, we will discuss the requirement of auto insurance for the rural area/ agriculture. Farmers have many automobiles like a tractor, four-wheeler car, Motorcycle, agriculture implements. Farmers must take separate insurance for tractor, four-wheeler loading, four-wheeler car, Motorcycle, agriculture implements. Insurance companies sell many insurance products their insurance products are designed for customers as per their need.  You can find product by the name of Tractor auto insurance, Car auto insurance, transport vehicle auto insurance, two-wheeler auto insurance.

Auto Insurance has two parts; Own damage and Third party. As per govt rule, every vehicle running on road must have an insurance cover. Own damage part covers the risk related to the damage to vehicle only. The premium of own damage insurance part depends on make and model of vehicle.  In the case of accidents if any things happen wrong and vehicle get damaged then this part cover the repairing of the vehicle.  Own damage cover varies from company to company. Some company cover glass part, some company cover plastic part, some company cover 50 % of rubber, plastic, and glass. Insurance premium depends on the type of cover. Before taking the insurance please ask and see it clearly that cover is written in policy plan.

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Auto insurance requirement in rural area/agriculture
Third party part covers the risk of damage occurs to third person /property/ vehicle during the during the accident. If vehicle get accident and a person who is walking on the road get died or vehicle damage the house, shop, anything can happen during the accident. This part covers this third-party risk.  The premium of this risk cover is very low but it is very important. Because we can calculate the damage of a vehicle. It can not be more than the price of the vehicle. But the third party risk is unlimited. We can’t calculate. For example, a person dies in the accident caused by the vehicle. If a normal earning person dies, the insurance claim can be his lifetime monthly salary (for example) if that person is the minister then risk will claim will be very high.

There are two-three minor part those are part of insurance auto insurance. The accidental death of Driver, Accidental death of passengers. These risks are also covers in auto insurance. Last part is generally service tax or GST. Farmers should take Auto-Insurance for their vehicle. It is mandatory and essential. Generally, farmer vehicle runs in the rural area. Traffic police don’t check auto insurance frequently, so farmers don’t go for auto insurance for their vehicle. But it is very important. IF there is no claim in previous auto insurance then insurance companies offer no claim bonus to the next auto insurance. This no claim bonus keep increases year by year in subsequent auto insurance.

Many companies provide auto insurance online. The farmer can take auto insurance quote online. Many companies have online portals. Auto insurance rates can vary from company to company. The farmer can check it before taking the auto insurance for his vehicle. Some companies provide caseless claim settlement process, for their auto insurance policy. In India there are four public sector general insurance companies and many privates insurance companies which provided auto insurance  like Cholamandalam MS General Insurance, Bajaj Allianz General Insurance, Bharti AXA General Insurance, Future Generali India Insurance, HDFC ERGO General Insurance Company, ICICI Lombard, IFFCO Tokio, Kotak Mahindra General Insurance, L&T  General Insurance, Liberty Videocon General Insurance, National Insurance Company, New India Assurance, The Oriental Insurance Company, Reliance General Insurance, Religare, Royal Sundaram General Insurance, Tata AIG General, United India Insurance Company, Universal Sompo General Insurance Company.

Monday, February 5, 2018

Why Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a bad idea for farmer and Indian agriculture.

Today we are moving toward the global economy. In Global economy, everyone wants a barrier-free market access.  Under the pressure of several organizations, Govt has announced that govt will announce MSP of agriculture produce which will be 1.5 times of the cost of cultivation.  This idea seems very attractive, but it will be a very dangerous idea for Indian agriculture and farmer. It seems more political and temporary decision then solution of the exact problem.

Injustice among farmers :

Cots of cultivation of wheat are more for the farmer of M.P. than Framer of Punjab who produces same wheat crop, As electricity and water are free in Punjab due to its geographical location but farmer of Madhya Pradesh has to pay the cost. At another side, Punjab farmer produces 40 Qt wheat in one hectare and MP farmer produces only 20 Qt.  Both the farmers will get different assistance from govt. Due to Geographical Identification, a farmer produce same rice in any part of Haryana is considered as Basmati and same rice cultivate in Sheopur Area of MP is considered as non-basmati. With same produce, the same cost of cultivation and same area farmer of Haryana will have an added advantage over farmer of Shopper ( M.P).

Over Production of few commodities :

Govt will decide the MSP of few agriculture commodities. It will attract farmers to go into the production of those selected MSP backed agriculture commodities. Cultivation area of other minor agriculture commodities will come down.  At the end of the year, there will be a vacuum in production and consumption. A lot of foreign agriculture produce will be imported to India and Indian over produced agriculture produce will be rotting in godowns. Most of MSP backed agriculture commodities will be purchased through the Govt channel and it will take time to reach up to the private processor through a defined channel. Up to that time, the private player would have ordered to foreign agriculture produce to keep their venture running.

India will become an easily accessible market :

India will become an easily accessible market for global agriculture production. For example, right now MSP of wheat is 1700/100 kg if govt announce to revise this MSP then it may reach to 2000/100Kg or more. The global price of wheat is around 1200 Rs/100 KG. Under the MSP govt will procure the wheat and private companies will be moved out from the market as the price of local wheat will be around 2000. Now the wheat-consuming industries will look toward global supplier.  The global supplier will adjust their price to Indian price.  After paying duty, transportation and another cost Ukrainian/ Russian/ Australian (example only) deliver wheat to Indian company at 1900/100Kg ( or lesser than Indian MSP).  after having good production, the Indian company will buy same agriculture commodity from a foreign supplier. A lot of foreign exchange will go out after having sufficient production India. We will lose the foreign exchange.

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Cost of Production of processed material will increase :

Cost of Indian agriculture commodity based processed food item will increase It will be very hard for Indian exporter to find the buyer for their Indian raw material-based product.  Indian investors will establish their industry in other country and supply the material to other export destination. Might be some foreign company will find it easy to enter in the Indian market for same processed food.

Cost of Seeds :

If the price of the base commodity will increase, then it will lead to increase the price of seed production and price of crop produce grown as seeds. Generally, seeds companies distribute seed among farmers and give buyback guarantee at a premium price than market price. Seed companies will have to offer more at a premium price. Untimely this increased cost burden will transfer to farmers only. Generally, seed companies keep incentive or margin for dealer and retailer on parentage basis. There will more margin addition in the final retail price of seed.

Export of Indian agriculture produce will go down :

As govt will decide MSP of few agriculture commodities. then farmers who take other minor crops will switch to main crops. Total production of other minor crops will come down. Our competitor will capture that market. For example, in the case of Rice if Indian rice will costly then Pakistan of other Asian countries will access that foreign market. India generates a lot of foreign exchange through species export, fruit export, herbs export.  With the new policy cultivation area of these products will come down. Indian produce a lot of important industrial crop like Guar. There is no MSP of GUAR. Then Guar cultivation area will come down and prices of Guar will increase for one or two years it will be good but after that Guar will be started to cultivate in foreign countries and Share of Indian Guar will come down. In long term, it will kill Indian guar gum industry.

Quality decrease :

The private player purchases a superior quality material at the lower price from the market. With Govt involvement, Govt officers & elected members will have direct interfere in the procurement process and govt will pay for more money for lesser quality material. For example; ITC will find it difficult to purchase quality wheat from the local market they may move toward foreign wheat because buying from the foreign supplier will be easy and less time-consuming.

Wastage of Natural Resources :

Agriculture requires a lot of resources, like water, electricity, finance, subsidy, labor. With increased MSP these resources will go to the production of overproduction agriculture commodities.   The country will have requirements of other important crops and country will depend on import of these important crops like Pulses. During last years with increased prices of pulses, the country was depending on pulses from Australia, Canada, Africa, Myanmar because farmers of good agriculture production states prefer wheat and rice due to govt procurement support.

Vegetable and Fruit production will come down :

Generally, farmers prefer of the switch of vegetable, fruit, dairy and other diversified agriculture as he gets the good return in comparison to conventional agriculture. These diversify agriculture require more challenging work, physical work, more care and more investment.  If Govt will increase MSP then production of these agriculture commodities ( Fruit and Vegetable) will come down. These will become costly in consumption for farmers/poor.

Against poor :  

Every poor don’t live in the village and he is not engaged only in agriculture. The process of increased MSP will increase the cost of their food. Govt provides few commodities in public distribution.  General Indian food is prepared with 5-6 spices, 4-5 pulses, 2-3 type of cereals, fresh vegetable and milk.  Might be govt can supply 1-2 cereals and 1-2 pulses to poor/farmer at lower price. For rest of food ingredient, poor / farmer will have to purchase it from the open market and it will cost more to poor/ farmer.

Every country has the specific climatic condition. India is a unique country due to its climatic condition. We can take three crops a year. Whereas in Europe or America, they have taken only crop a year. In those countries, winter is not good for cultivation due to heavy snowfall. Indian must identify those opportunities that India can supply regular food to these countries in extreme condition. For a good business environment, there must be healthy competition. MSP based on the cost of cultivation will not give an edge to the healthy competition. India must work on quality enhancement and Industrialization of agriculture so that India can produce cheaper agriculture produce and other countries will depend on Indian agriculture output. As per economic condition of farmers is concerned they can covered under social security scheme. Indian must work as Global leader it must take care of poor and business both separately but not by intersecting each other.